Olafur Eliasson – How to Do Good Art

Olafur Eliasson is without question someone by whom anyone who ever looked at a painting, a smart piece of industrial design, or installation project and said to themselves,’ I wish I had thought of that’, should be inspired. He’s done it all and all of it with a mind towards practical use, be it physical, emotional, political, or spiritual. His work crosses all boundaries and sets the bar for the voyage from concept to reality. Read on and spend a few minutes inside this dynamic mind. Watch his TED talk. You won’t be the same afterwards.

Olafur Eliasson on How to Do Good Art

On the eve of his exhibition at the new Fondation Louis Vuitton, the artist discusses his work — which includes a school, an architecture practice, a charity, a cookbook and a herd of Icelandic sheep, and which is meant to make the world a better place. Really.

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Unfinished wooden sculptures at Studio Olafur Eliasson, which occupies a converted brewery in Prenzlauer Berg, Berlin.

Unfinished wooden sculptures at Studio Olafur Eliasson, which occupies a converted brewery in Prenzlauer Berg, Berlin.Credit Nigel Shafran

“Irony or not?” said Olafur Eliasson, looking around the meeting table. At his studio in Berlin, the answer is almost invariably “not,” but perhaps here an exception could be made. Eliasson and a few of his staff were finalizing the title of a new book chronicling the five-year history of the Institut für Raumexperimente, a small art school that Eliasson ran until February. The title under consideration was “How to Make the Best Art School in the World.” “It would be nice to piss off the very academic art schools,” Eliasson said. “I do think we had the best students in the world. But is irony really the economy I want to support?” In the end, Eliasson and his staff agreed that such good-natured braggadocio was pretty harmless in irony terms, although the cover would be designed so that at first glance the book would appear to be titled simply “How to Make.” Eliasson had also ensured that the book would include a photograph of a puppy that one of the students had met on a field trip. “Every book should have a picture of a puppy in it,” he told me, “because it just makes you so happy.”

If, like me, you operate under the assumption that irony is automatically more sophisticated than earnestness, it is confounding to enter Eliasson’s world. One of the most extensive private holdings of his work belongs to the advertising executive Christian Boros, whose appointment-only museum in the Mitte district, the Boros Collection, was originally built as a Nazi air-raid shelter but over the years has also functioned as a banana warehouse and a notoriously debauched techno club. This is the nature of Berlin, where things cascade with contradictory meanings, where “post-” is a ubiquitous prefix, where hipsters chase oblivion in the ruins of old dogmas. Irony is almost always a safe bet here, not least in the expat art scene. So you arrive at Studio Olafur Eliasson with certain expectations, and when you find that, on the contrary, it is one of the most earnest places you have ever been, you start looking around for the cracks.

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Clockwise from top left: ‘‘Inside the Horizon,’’ a recently completed installation at the Frank Gehry-designed Fondation Louis Vuitton in Paris; ‘‘One-way colour tunnel’’ at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 2007; ‘‘Your waste of time,’’ 2013, for which chunks of ice were transported from Iceland’s largest glacier into MoMA’s PS1 gallery; ‘‘Your wave is,’’ a three-dimensional mesh of light-emitting cables hung over the Palazzo Grassi on Venice’s Grand Canal in 2006.

Clockwise from top left: ‘‘Inside the Horizon,’’ a recently completed installation at the Frank Gehry-designed Fondation Louis Vuitton in Paris; ‘‘One-way colour tunnel’’ at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 2007; ‘‘Your waste of time,’’ 2013, for which chunks of ice were transported from Iceland’s largest glacier into MoMA’s PS1 gallery; ‘‘Your wave is,’’ a three-dimensional mesh of light-emitting cables hung over the Palazzo Grassi on Venice’s Grand Canal in 2006.Credit Clockwise from top left: Iwan Baan; Ian Reeves/Courtesy of San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Matthew Septimus; Santi Caleca.

Eliasson was born in Copenhagen to Icelandic parents in 1967. His most celebrated work to date is 2003’s “The weather project,” for which the Turbine Hall of London’s Tate Modern was converted into a gigantic, artificial solarium, attracting over the course of six months two million visitors, who often felt compelled to lie down on the floor, spelling out political messages with their bodies or just gazing at themselves and each other in the mirror on the ceiling. My own favorite work of Eliasson’s is “Your waste of time,” an installation at MoMA PS1 in Long Island City last year that consisted of several chunks of ice, detached by seasonal melting from an Icelandic glacier, that had been fished out of a lake, shipped to New York and installed in the refrigerated gallery. There they sat for nearly four months, crystalline but also surprisingly grimy, stout as rock but also frail enough to need their own microclimate — individual and real and lost.

A lot of Eliasson’s works are like this: irruptions of the elemental into a museum setting, as if the building had sprung some mythic leak. Others are harder to convey in a high-concept pitch. When I visited the studio, Eliasson was working on a commission for the Fondation Louis Vuitton, a major new museum that opened in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris last month. In addition to taking over the ground floor for the Fondation’s inaugural temporary show, he would be constructing a permanent “grotto” from which the Frank Gehry-designed building could be flatteringly viewed. Although Eliasson showed me plenty of sketches and models for the exhibition, I never quite formed a clear idea of what he was planning to do, apart from that it involved mirrors and curves and tinted glass. This side of Eliasson’s practice takes the form of a highly refined fun house, subjecting you to experiments in human perception that don’t sound like much until you see them firsthand. The intended effect often seems to be a pre-intellectual wonder, so that you will have basically the same experience as the 5-year-old next to you. There’s a reason why Eliasson feels an imperative to appeal to the broadest possible audience. He believes that in normal life we have a tendency to hurry along on autopilot, seldom questioning our deeper assumptions. Art, by goosing the senses, can make us more conscious of our positions in time, space, hierarchy, society, culture, the planet. In the long run, this heightened consciousness will result in change for the better — emotionally, socially, politically.

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Clockwise from left: ‘‘The weather project’’ of 2003, which drew more than two million visitors to the Turbine Hall of Tate Modern;  ‘‘Your rainbow panorama,’’ built on top of the ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum in Denmark in 2007; an interior view. <em>Andrew Dunkley & Marcus Leith; Ole Hein Pedersen; Studio Olafur Eliasson.</em>

Clockwise from left: ‘‘The weather project’’ of 2003, which drew more than two million visitors to the Turbine Hall of Tate Modern;  ‘‘Your rainbow panorama,’’ built on top of the ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum in Denmark in 2007; an interior view. Andrew Dunkley & Marcus Leith; Ole Hein Pedersen; Studio Olafur Eliasson.Credit

In other words, Eliasson has a faith in the improving power of art that has been out of fashion since Victorian times. But his ambitions aren’t bounded by his studio. He is on friendly terms with Bill Gates, Kofi Annan and Michael Bloomberg, and regularly attends the World Economic Forum in Davos to discuss public policy with the people who make it. “I don’t go there to meet world leaders,” he joked. “I go to become a world leader!” In fact, he already talks like a politician much of the time, with a habit of disappearing into a haze of generalities and wonk-speak and anecdotes of uncertain relevance. The concepts he draws on — inclusivity and engagement and trust and so on — seem to have been filtered to ensure that you could no more be offended by his statements than you could be offended by the colored lights he puts in museums. Yes, he has given a TED talk.

And yet the longer I spent with Eliasson, the harder I found it to cling to my cynicism, because he’s such a good advertisement for sincerity. One of Eliasson’s friends, the author Jonathan Safran Foer, told me over the phone that he found spending time with Eliasson “overwhelming, whether overwhelming in the sense of at times feeling almost too much, or overwhelming in the sense of being really moving. You sit down with Olafur for a meal and he picks up the fork and stares at it for a moment and you think, Oh my god, he’s either inventing a new fork or wondering how to get forks to people who don’t have forks. ” He added: “After I’ve spent an hour with him I feel like I need a nap, but it’s because he has more curiosity than anyone I’ve ever met, and a greater belief in a person’s ability to be useful and to change things. Somehow he lives his entire life with the urgency of someone who just walked out of the doctor’s office with a dire prognosis.”

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Clockwise from top left: cooking using the Studio Olafur Eliasson cookbook; Brooklyn Bridge as seen during Eliasson’s ‘‘The New York City Waterfalls’’ project in 2008; from the ‘‘Grey Sheep’’ series, 2013, featuring Eliasson’s own herd of Icelandic sheep, bred to rehabilitate the Icelandic economy; at the studio, two of the 90 staff members who assist the artist; an advertisement for the ‘‘Little Sun,’’ a solar-powered LED lamp distributed worldwide

Clockwise from top left: cooking using the Studio Olafur Eliasson cookbook; Brooklyn Bridge as seen during Eliasson’s ‘‘The New York City Waterfalls’’ project in 2008; from the ‘‘Grey Sheep’’ series, 2013, featuring Eliasson’s own herd of Icelandic sheep, bred to rehabilitate the Icelandic economy; at the studio, two of the 90 staff members who assist the artist; an advertisement for the ‘‘Little Sun,’’ a solar-powered LED lamp distributed worldwideCredit Clockwise from top left: Fg | Architektur & Indechs; Julienne Schaer/Courtesy Public Art Fund; Studio Olafur Eliasson; Nigel Shafran; Maddalena Valeri.

Eliasson has 90 people working for him. Few of them have job titles. Four days a week they all eat a healthy vegetarian lunch together in the light-filled canteen upstairs, with a rotating schedule for washing the dishes afterward. Initially, I found the atmosphere at the studio rather too good to be true, like a hippie cult before night falls. But when I joined Eliasson for lunch on my second day at the studio, I sat there eating my roasted carrots and enviously contemplating how much better my life would be if I, too, received that bounty of vegetables and sunlight and intelligent chatter. Sebastian Behmann, who heads Eliasson’s architecture practice, told me that you can track how long someone has worked at Studio Olafur Eliasson by how much healthier they look every year (and indeed many people have stayed on for a decade or more). Last year, Studio Olafur Eliasson published its own 368-page cookbook of sustainable vegetarian recipes.

This is just one of the unpredictable byproducts of the studio, which often resembles a sort of ongoing Apollo project. Others have included the art school, a full-scale architecture practice, a series of publications, a charity and a herd of Icelandic sheep. As motley as these pursuits may sound, Eliasson would argue that they all emerge from a single mind-set, and that they’ve all been made viable by his years of practical experience as an artist. “If you can make a show in Venice, which is the most difficult damned thing one can do, not just because working with Italians is a mess, but also because you’re in a city on water in the middle of nowhere and getting a hammer and a nail is impossible . . . you can make a show on the moon,” he told me. “So as an artist, you become an entrepreneur by definition. . . . The art world underestimates its own relevance when it insists on always staying inside the art world. Maybe one can take some of the tools, methodologies, and see if one can apply them to something outside the art world.”

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 Eliasson at work.
 Eliasson at work.Credit Nigel Shafran

For instance, sheep. “It started with the financial crisis,” Eliasson told me when I asked about his herd. “Björk said everybody must think innovatively. So we started buying up lambs to rescue the Icelandic economy — but I think we ended up burdening it! My mistake was I wanted to turn it into an art project. Still, it was a nice excuse to go to the countryside and drink vodka and play with the sheep.” Eliasson began breeding lambs whose meat would be particularly well-suited to Moroccan tagines, with the intention of selling diced, marinated lamb to delis in Iceland. “I just couldn’t convince my partners that people in Iceland would eat tagine.” In the end, the lambs were slaughtered, their meat frozen and their wool knitted into 20 “secular prayer mats.”

Other ventures have been less quixotic. After they adopted two children from Addis Ababa, Eliasson and his wife, the art historian Marianne Krogh Jensen, started 121Ethiopia, a project that works to improve the lives of children in Ethiopian orphanages. 121Ethiopia operates on a modest scale. Little Sun, Eliasson’s other philanthropic enterprise, does not. Developed with the Danish engineer Frederik Ottesen, the Little Sun is a very efficient solar-powered LED lamp, cheerful in design and lightweight enough to wear around the neck on a lanyard. Since the lamp’s debut in 2012, more than 200,000 have been distributed, over a third of them to regions in Africa with no electricity, the rest at venues like Tate Modern or Coachella. While Eliasson was still discussing the Institut für Raumexperimente book, I was taken upstairs to the Little Sun workshop to meet Felix Tristan Hallwachs, who heads the project. “We’re not going to solve the Ukraine crisis, we’re not going to solve IS [Islamic State],” he said. “But in theory if everyone has a light at home and can study, then you have less chaos in the world, probably.”

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One of Eliasson’s hanging sculptures in the studio.
One of Eliasson’s hanging sculptures in the studio.Credit Nigel Shafran

If there isn’t much irony at Studio Olafur Eliasson, I came to feel, it’s not because irony is proscribed. Irony doesn’t offend anyone and it doesn’t go over anyone’s head. Irony is simply not required, because the things you can achieve with crusading sincerity are self-evidently so much better. At worst, you could argue that Little Sun makes Eliasson’s talk about the power of museum art look a bit vaporous by comparison. But at Studio Olafur Eliasson the distinction between art and direct intervention is barely even recognized. Hallwachs told me: “Olafur’s work uses media from photography to oil paint to all kinds of installations and architecture. Now business is part of the range of media as well.” Eliasson told me that he was hoping to present a work at the next G7 conference that would evaluate the German public’s degree of trust in Chancellor Angela Merkel and perhaps in the process inspire a renewal of the European relationship with Africa. I asked him whether, in order to achieve such an ambitious and specific political objective he would need to make a new type of work, something more targeted, more explicit. Possibly, he replied — but he would be just as likely to bring along something like “Riverbed,” which consists of a riparian landscape constructed inside the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art near Copenhagen from 180 tons of Icelandic bluestone. For Eliasson, art need never be marginal, and art need never be just a carrier for a message. Art can change the world with the sheer intensity of its art-ness. Or, perhaps, by helping to get the artist in a room with the energy minister of Nigeria.

If Eliasson had his way, the same “everyone’s invited!” quality that makes his work so appealing to institutions might sometimes be pushed to extremes that would leave even those institutions flustered. Before I left the studio, I related to Eliasson something that happened to me in July last year at Warm Up, the Saturday afternoon dance party held in the courtyard of MoMA PS1. It was oppressively hot and muggy on the outdoor dance floor, and halfway through the afternoon I had the idea of going inside to spend a few minutes with “Your waste of time,” the piece with the chunks of ice, to cool off. Arriving at the gallery, however, my friends and I found that it had been locked for the duration of the event, so we could do no more than press ourselves against the chilly door. When I told Eliasson this story, he looked genuinely pained. “What a pity!” he kept saying. “What a pity! I would have left that door open.” But would he really have wanted drunken revelers slithering over this ancient ice that he’d imported from thousands of miles away? “If the ice melts and disappears — well, maybe it’s beautiful that there was once an iceberg, and then there was a party and now the iceberg is gone.” He pointed out that this would have been an excellent metaphor for man-made climate change. “People underestimate how robust art is.” He added: “If we don’t believe that creativity as a language can be as powerful as the language of the politicians, we would be very sad — and I would have failed. I am convinced that creativity is a fierce weapon.”

“Inside the Horizon,” a specially commissioned grotto by Olafur Eliasson, is now on view at the Frank Gehry-designed Fondation Louis Vuitton in Paris. An exhibition of Eliasson’s work, the inaugural show at the Fondation, will open on Dec. 17 and run until Feb. 16, 2015.

Lars Jan’s Holoscenes Project

I had the opportunity recently to attend a talk with Lars Jan, the artist responsible for Holoscenes, a performance project exemplifying people’s reactions to sea level rise, who was paired with social scientist, Sabine Marx, from CRED (Center for Research on Environmental Decisions) at Columbia University.

Watching the video of Lar’s work, I was struck by it’s clarity. It was one of many similar examples of live performances of people doing ordinary things, like food shopping, taking a nap or, in this case, playing the guitar, in 360 degree viewable vitrines over the course of 12 hours. The hook in this video is the fellow playing the guitar is doing so in a vertical, human-sized aquarium, or vitrine, that fills and empties with water in time with the rise and fall of BP’s stock prices for the year over the course of one hour. Sitting on the chair calmly playing guitar the water rises until he must stand, and then begins to float with the guitar above his head, and then eventually letting the guitar go in order to breathe and swim.

holoscenes guitar 2

In time, the water recedes, depositing the player on the ground where he rights his chair, raises the soggy, water-filled guitar above his head and empties it behind him. And then resumes playing as if nothing had happened.

© Christian Bobak

The scene repeats itself with variations – the water level rising not always to the top but always enough to disturb the activity of guitar playing, but not enough to stop it altogether or cause undue alarm.

HoloscenenesToronto_GuitarSquare1-1024x1024

The guitar player is subjected to this irregular and unpredictable onslaught of water pouring in and out for one hour. The other examples of activities are the same. Equally poignant is the nap video. As we sleep, sea level rise is happening all around us. There seems to be little we can do but ride the wave of water that disturbs the now swimming sleeper who has to catch the floating pillow and blanket as it swirls all around, until finally the water recedes and the nap resumes, only to be disturbed yet again. But the result is the same: retrieve the pillow and go back to sleep. An attention grabbing allegory for the overwhelming crisis for the ordinary man that is climate change.

Holoscenes nap

The message I retained from this experience is in line with the work CRED does – the social science behind climate change perception and action reveals that as humans our memories are short, our attention spans shorter. Our flight or flight biology rules us whether we know it or not. One is almost always in the mindset to fix the immediate problem, not consider the possibility of its repetition, and maintain status quo. We empty the water-filled guitar, seemingly having solved the problem, give little heed to its larger, overlying cause, and continue playing. Immediate needs come first, last, and always.

George Marshall, author of “Don’t Even Think About It, Why Our Brains are Wired to Ignore Climate Change”, illustrates during a trip to New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy, that it was accepted among the locals that climate change was happening, but no one wanted to talk about it, they just “want to go home, and we will deal with the lofty stuff some other day.” This is the effect of tragedy of any kind: “The pain and loss of the event generates an intensified desire that there be a “normal” state to which one can return, making it even harder for people to accept that there are larger changes under way.” This idea is paired with CRED’s Connecting on Climate: A Guide to Effective Climate Change Communication where the finite pool of worry often takes precedence: in general the huge concept of global climate change is well down the list from daily concerns such as work, relationships, mortgages, and children. Which brings us full circle – in and among your daily activities, how does climate change play a role? Lars has hit a nerve by choosing to highlight that which personally effects us.

That is the crux of Holoscenes and it makes it’s point clearly and powerfully. First displayed in Toronto, there are two more site specific runs of the work to come this year, one in Sarasota, FL in March and San Francisco, CA after that. New York is hopefully going to be added to the list.

I highly recommend checking out the works and finding it if it comes to a town near you. Or contributing a video of an ordinary daily behavior like so many have from around the world.

Eight Foods Effected by Climate Change

Of all the possible disastrous outcomes of climate change, the effect it is having on our food supply is the scariest. It is not only a matter of price, as some of this article suggests, it is about running out of room. There is only so far north you can go before you run into the Arctic? And then what? There is a reason corn is grown in the corn belt and oranges in the tropics. These crops grow best in these temperature ranges. And what warming we have already experienced has made a dent in production. Corn, wheat, seafood, maple syrup, beans, coffee, chocolate, cherries and wine grapes are already feeling some stress. Pick your favorite staple and think of that when make the decision to turn off the lights or buy a hybrid vehicle or choose organic over conventional. It all makes a difference.

Eight Foods You’re About to Lose due to Climate Change

As worsening drought and extreme weather devastate crops, you may begin seeing global warming when you open your fridge.

By Twilight Greenaway

seafood climate change

What does climate change taste like?

It’s an odd question, but an increasingly pertinent one. After all, as temperatures rise and extreme weather becomes the norm, many food production systems are becoming threatened. As that trend increases, it’s worth asking which foods consumers will have to cut back on – or abandon entirely.

According to David Lobell, deputy director of the Center on Food Security and the Environment at Stanford University, “The general story is that agriculture is sensitive. It’s not the end of the world; but it will be a big enough deal to be worth our concern.”
One major issue is carbon dioxide, or CO2. Plants use the gas to fuel photosynthesis, a fact that has led some analysts to argue that an increase CO2 is a good thing for farming. Lobell disagrees, noting that CO2 is only one of many factors in agriculture. “There’s a point at which adding more and more CO2 doesn’t help,” he says. Other factors – like the availability of water, the increasing occurrence of high and low temperature swings and the impact of stress on plant health – may outweigh the benefits of a CO2 boost.
Lobell has already noticed the effect of climate change on some crops. For example, he says, yield data from corn and wheat production suggests that these two staples are already being negatively affected by the changing climate. Similarly, fruit and nuts are also showing the impact of climate change. Fruit trees require “chilling hours”, or time in cold, wintry environments, for optimum production. If they don’t hit their required number of cold, wintery days, their production – and quality – drop. These reduced yields, Lobell explains, lead to more frequent price spikes in many foods.

Here’s a list of the foods to enjoy now – while they’re comparatively plentiful.

Corn (and the animals that eat it)

Water shortages and warmer temperatures are bad news for corn: in fact, a global rise in temperatures of just 1C (1.8F) would slow the rate of growth by 7%. The impact of a disruption in corn production would extend far beyond the produce section at the supermarket. A great deal of US corn goes to feed livestock, so lower corn yields could mean higher meat prices, and fewer servings of meat per capita.

This isn’t merely speculation: Lobell claims that changes to this $1.7tn industry have already begun. According to a recent study (subscription required) that he co-authored, the world’s farmers have been much less productive in recent years than they would have were it not for climate change. Global corn production, in particular, has already been nearly 4% lower than it would have been if the climate were not warming.

Coffee

Higher-than-average temperatures and shifting weather patterns in the tropics have made “coffee rust” fungus and invasive species the new norm on coffee plantations. And, to make things worse, a severe drought in Brazil this spring caused prices to skyrocket. Some analysts are predicting that, if the current trends continue, Latin American coffee production could relocate to Asia.

Latin America isn’t the only coffee-producing region facing the impacts of shifting weather patterns. In Africa, the number of regions suitable for growing coffee is predicted to fall anywhere from 65% to 100% as the climate warms. In this case, higher temperatures would produce lower yields and plant.

Chocolate

According to a widely cited 2011 study (pdf) from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), cacao beans – the raw ingredient in chocolate – will become much less plentiful over the next few decades. The main problem is rising temperatures and falling water supplies: in the African nations of Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire, temperatures are predicted to rise by at least 2C by 2050. This, in turn, will increase “evapotranspiration” in the cocoa trees, causing them to lose more water to the air and reducing their yield.

Andrew Jarvis, Leader of the Decision and Policy Analysis Program at CIAT, says that, while chocolate and coffee are not crucial to our survival, studying the impact of climate change on them makes sense, because they can help raise awareness about climate change by “hitting people’s soft spots.”

“Imagine waking up and not having coffee to get you through the morning, or not having a bar of chocolate readily available when you get a craving,” he says. “It’s not that there won’t be any, but the prices will likely be much higher. Both these crops are very sensitive to climate change, and increases in demand are outstripping our capacity to supply.”

dagoba chocolate

Seafood

In addition to its impacts on land, climate change can also contribute to rising levels of CO2 in the ocean. This, in turn, leads to ocean acidification, which could threaten a whole range of edible ocean creatures. For example, the shells of young oysters and other calcifying organisms are likely to grow less and less sturdy over time, as the oceans’ acidity increases. The UK’s chief scientist, Sir Mark Walport, recently announced that, thanks to man-made CO2, the acidity of the oceans has increased by about 25% since the start of the industrial revolution.
Another problem is that, according to a recent study, most fish are slow to adapt to acidification, leading to a risk of species collapse. Some animals, like tropical fish and lobsters, are moving north in search of cooler habitats, but this migration causes other problems.

Tropical fish, for example, are more susceptible to parasites in warmer water, further weakening their species. Meanwhile, lobsters tend to eat everything in sight, so their move puts the native habitats of a host of other species at risk.

Maple syrup

Wetter winters and drier summers are putting more stress on sugar maples, the trees whose sap is needed to produce maple syrup. In the winter, the trees need freezing temperatures to fuel the expansion and contraction process that they use to produce the necessary sap. Rising temperatures are already causing sap to flow earlier: according to some estimates, this may push up maple production by up to a month by the end of the next century.

The US Department of Agriculture also predicts that the industry will move north, as the trees in cooler areas fair better, and maple trees in states such as Pennsylvania are less likely to survive the shift. The USDA Forest Service has developed the Climate Change Tree Atlas, which shows that sugar maples will likely loose some habitat. “While maple trees won’t necessarily vanish from the landscape,” says the federal agency, but “there could be fewer trees that are more stressed, further reducing maple syrup availability.”

maple syrup trees

Beans

Beans feed the majority of the population in Latin America and much of Africa, but the hearty legumes might be quailing in the face of climate change. According to a report from CIAT, higher temperatures affect flowering and seed production in bean vines, reducing yields by as much as 25%. And in bean-growing regions, too much rain – in the form of storms and floods – will likely destroy some crops as well.

“Beans are very sensitive to climate,” says CIAT’s Jarvis, noting that their need for low temperatures helps explain why they do well in the mountainous regions of East Africa. “High temperatures, especially at night, can significantly affect the productivity of the crop.”

Cherries

Stone fruits, particularly cherries, require chill hours to bear fruit; too few cold nights, and the trees are less likely to achieve successful pollination. On the west coast, where the bulk of sweet cherries are grown, rising temperatures mean that trees might flower later and produce fewer fruits.

Unusually timed cold weather can be just as disastrous. In 2012, the Michigan cherry industry lost 90% of its tart cherry crop after a late freeze.

Wine grapes

Thanks to warmer temperatures, wine grapes will likely soon be in higher demand – making wine more expensive. A 2013 study predicted that “major global geographic shifts” among wine growers – as well as fluctuations in temperature and moisture levels in Europe, Australia, North American, and South Africa – will essentially make the perfect wine grape a moving target. Australia will probably be hit the hardest, as 73% of the land there could be unsuitable for growing grapes by 2050. California’s loss is nearly as high at 70%.

Then there’s the question of “terroir”, or flavor based on geographical location. Wine grapes like heat, but not too much. In extreme temperatures, they can even go into a kind of thermal shock that can severely alter flavor. On the bright side, the grapes also retain more sugar in these circumstances, making the final product higher in alcohol, so the casual sipper won’t need to drink as much to feel the effects.

7 industries at greatest risk from climate change

Here is a quick slideshow about seven industries that will be most effected by climate change. It is not “somebody else’s job” to care for the resources that support us. It is everyone’s. On this list are Insurance, Agriculture, Energy, the Beverage Industry, Commercial Fishing, Skiing, Wineries, and Wall Street.

7 industries climate change

I don’t ever want to say “Remember skiing? That was fun, wasn’t it? Too bad we melted all the snow.” And for what, exactly? Try answering that and see what arguments come. And what they sound like in the face of personal, local and global consequences. It’s an interesting exercise. Wineries is also a soft spot for me, and more than a few others I imagine. Terroire is a delicate and centuries old balance of cultivation and culture that can be destroyed by a single degree change in temperature. It can’t be replicated or simply moved.

My question is: what constitutes an acceptable loss? The real question is “why?”. What was so important you couldn’t add environmental protection to your bottom line? It appears to me if you ask why often enough, there is no argument strong enough to justify anything other than stewardship of resources. Watch the slide show and choose – what moves you to act? There must be one thing on the list that will speak to you. Find it. Then do something about it.

 

Project Drawdown – Paul Hawken’s new book

Paul Hawken has long been known for his straight forward yet eloquent and articulate perspective on the climate crisis and our economy. In his latest publication, Project Drawdown, to be released this spring, he drills down to not only the nitty gritty of what to do (which we already know) but more importantly how to do it in the most expedient fashion addressing all areas from deforestation to education and population. Drawdown, as defined means in his terms, “the point at which greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere begin to decline”. An ambitious undertaking to be sure. Hence the how to manual in book, digital platform and database formats that is meant to be as easily accessible as possible. Read the Greenbiz article below and pre-order the book. It’s sure to be a game changer and page turner!

Inside Paul Hawken’s audacious plan to ‘drawdown’ climate change
By Joel Makower

Catch Paul Hawken in person next week at VERGE SF 2014, Oct. 27 to 30.

Today, at the Greenbuild conference in New Orleans, entrepreneur and author Paul Hawken will publicly unveil a project, more than a year in the works, aimed at reducing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

You read that right: to reduce, not just stabilize, atmospheric CO2 and other gases, in order to reverse rising global temperatures.

Project Drawdown, as it is named, will produce a book in 2016, detailing the costs and benefits of scores of climate solutions, from light bulb technology to livestock techniques to literacy for teenage girls. For each, Hawken and his team will “do the numbers,” providing detailed, science-based data and econometric models showing how each plays out, based on current technology and how it will likely evolve over the project’s 30-year horizon.

“The book is not a plan,” Hawken explained to me recently. “It is not a proposal. It is a reflection back to the world what we are doing and know how to do right this second.”

A meaningful dent

The project grew out of Hawken’s frustration with actionable, scalable solutions that would make a meaningful dent in the atmosphere’s growing accumulation of greenhouse gases. The solutions that had been proffered over the years were all seemingly out of reach — ungodly amounts of solar and wind energy that would be required, for example, or the mass adoption of futuristic, unproven technologies.

“It made me feel like this is intractable, that it requires such Promethean work by such mammoth institutions, with policy changes that are more than structural,” he recalled. “It made me feel like it wasn’t possible to address climate change, rather than giving me hope.”

When the activist Bill McKibben wrote the seminal article, “Global Warming’s Terrifying New Math,” in Rolling Stone in 2012, Hawken asked, “Why aren’t we doing the math on the solutions? Somebody should come up with a list and see what it requires so you get to drawdown.”

The idea of “drawdown” — actually reducing greenhouse gas concentrations so that global temperatures drop — hasn’t been part of the conversation, at least among the United Nations crowd, climate activists or cleantech companies. Most focus on the seemingly pragmatic goal of stabilizing greenhouse gases at some level, expressed in parts per million, or ppm, that would be tolerable — or at least not catastrophic, from economic, environmental and social perspectives.

project drawdown 2

Hawken thought differently. “There’s no such thing as stabilization at 450 or 550 ppm,” he said. “That’s not stabilized. That’s volatile. I felt that the goal should be drawdown, which is a year-to-year reduction of carbon from the upper atmosphere, period.”

Last year, Hawken began teaching at the Presidio Graduate School, alongside climate activist and entrepreneur Amanda Joy Ravenhill. “One day we were just riffing, and we started talking about drawdown and said, ‘Let’s do it. No one else is doing it,’” Hawken recounted. Today, Ravenhill is Project Drawdown’s executive director and, with Hawken, the book’s co-editor. The two have recruited more than 80 advisors, partners, scientists, government agencies and participating universities, along with more than 200 graduate students.

Doing the numbers

Hawken and Ravenhill will need that army to pull off their audacious vision. The challenge, as Hawken describes it, isn’t in describing the solutions but in doing the numbers — the carbon savings and financial accounting, of course, but also how each solution plays out by country or region, based on available energy resources, climate, economy and other factors — and how each is likely to morph over the next 30 years.

And not just the positives. “We had to be very, very careful that we had the subtraction sign,” factoring in ways greenhouse gas emissions can increase in the atmosphere along the way, offsetting any reductions. For example, he said, ”We can talk about reforestation as being one of the hundred solutions, which it certainly is, but we have to make sure we subtract out the rate of fires in the world to reflect what’s burning down.”

project drawdown 1

Moreover, he says, technologies can’t be measured in isolation; they need to be viewed as parts of the systems in which they operate. “We can talk about LED bulbs, but we also have to talk about solutions like dynamic skins or smart glass, which actually reduce light load by 40 or 50 percent. Each of these solutions has a history and measurements and metrics and numbers, so we are not pulling rabbits out of a hat.”

And then there’s the problem of double-counting, where individual benefits — energy reductions or financial savings, for example — are counted twice, or even three or four times in a single calculation, inflating a technology’s benefits or understating its costs. That’s been a frequent problem with some clean technology advocates’ rosy scenarios.

The goal, says Hawken, is to make the numbers indisputable. “The numbers wanted to be beyond impeccable in terms of methodology and inputs and even their bias. We wanted to have a very conservative bias on the numbers, so that nobody could say we’re egging the pudding or exaggerating.”

“Doing the numbers” has proved to be as daunting a challenge as Hawken expected, or perhaps more so. The concern over getting it right has led Project Drawdown to push back the book’s publication date, to spring 2016 from the original goal of fall 2015.

Beyond books

True to Hawken’s nature — he’s not likely to be satisfied with simply creating a book, however ambitious and meticulously detailed — Project Drawdown’s plans extend in several directions. The solutions and calculations will be contained in a publicly available database, along with the means for individuals and groups to create customized applications (using APIs, in computer parlance). “Anybody can repurpose it, download it, regionalize it, so they can use the Drawdown solutions to measure progress in any geographically bounded area,” he explained. Users could model solutions differently — for example, factoring in different scenarios of how the cost and efficiency of solar energy might play out over the years. Hawken says there are also plans for accompanying educational curricula developed by National Science Foundation. And possibly some media projects based on the work.

The research could even be used as a policy tool, Hawken says. “What we see again and again is negative cost. We don’t see the opprobrium that is always cast on climate mitigation, which is, ‘It costs too much, costs too much, costs too much.’ We don’t see that at all. We see ‘Return, return, return.’ So governments — whether cities or local or communities or counties or states — can understand that these are no-regrets projects that have a very strong positive return, in which case you would want to do them, regardless of what you think about the rate of change in climate or whether you believe in it at all.”

Despite the long road ahead, Hawken is already looking past the publication of what he dubs “Drawdown 1,” and on to its sequel. That, he promises, will look at the next generation of technologies, with all of their unrealized potential to solve climate change. “We don’t know the ending of this book, make that very clear, but with Drawdown 2, we’re saying, ‘Look what is coming. It is stunning.’”

It’s easy, in today’s divisive and toxic political environment, to view Project Drawdown as too good to be true, a quixotic quest for an unattainable goal.

But there’s something simple and sane about Project Drawdown’s collective ingredients: unabashed optimism tempered by sharp-pencil calculations, a bold goal undergirded by scientific pragmatism, immediacy coupled with a 30-year horizon, all leveraging the wisdom of a very smart crowd.

Not all of it will pan out — there are simply too many variables and uncertainties — but much of it will. And it just could move the needle.

Coming at it from all angles – a graphic novel about climate change

It took him six years of learning and research but now it is finished. An epic and informative graphic novel about climate change called Climate Changed: A Personal Journey Through the Science. The author, Philippe Squarzoni, has said that the subject matter of his newest work chose him and not the other way around. He couldn’t not do it.

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climate changed

And so he chronicles in a Climate Changed: A Personal Journey Through the Science his own discovery of what to really means to live in this time and how powerless it often feels in the face of something as huge and daunting as a planet-wide crisis. Questions are asked, answers given, not always to satisfaction, mirroring most people’s experiences at this point in time. You can’t be afraid all you life, he says. So he made himself informed, for better or worse. A book can’t change the world, he knows, but one has to try, to use what they have to say what needs saying. And so we continue to try and inspire action in any way we can. To come at it from all angles. Let this be but one of many that takes us to a state of mindful action.

green house effect
climate changed

Read the full article here

 

New York Oyster Week is on!

New York Oyster Week is back! The benevolent bi-valve that cleans our waters and is also quite delicious is back in the spotlight for the remainder of September!

Find all the unique events here: http://www.oysterweek.com/events/2014/taste-talks-all-about-half-shell

oyster week

Don’t know how to get your mitts on some of these beauties? Try Open Table! It doesn’t get any easier than that – http://www.opentable.com/promo.aspx?m=8&pid=784

Coming up quickly is the Third Annual Ahoysters! on September 16th at 5pm. http://www.oysterweek.com/events/2014/3rd-annual-ahoysters.

ahoysters 2014

Unlimited oysters and cocktails and the presence of Food and Wine celebrity David Rosengarten who will be there to answer any and all questions and raise a glass with you.

Oysters abound! See you there!

Money Talks

Tackling climate change would grow global economy, World Bank says

Findings put to rest claims that the world could not afford to act on climate change

theguardian.com,

Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper (R) and his Australian counterpart Tony Abbott attend a joint press conference at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Canada on June 9, 2014.
Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper (R) and his Australian counterpart Tony Abbott attend a joint press conference at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Canada on June 9, 2014. Photograph: David Kawai/Corbis
 

Fighting climate change would help grow the world economy, according to the World Bank, adding up to $2.6tn (£1.5tn) a year to global GDP in the coming decades.

The findings, made available in a report on Tuesday, offer a sharp contrast with claims by the Australian government that fighting climate change would “clobber” the economy.

The report also advances on the work of economists who have argued that it will be far more costly in the long run to delay action on climate change.

Instead, Tuesday’s report found a number of key policies – none of which included putting an economy-wide price on carbon – would lead to global GDP gains of between $1.8tn and $2.6tn a year by 2030, in terms of new jobs, increased crop productivity and public health benefits.

The pro-climate regulations and tax incentives would also on their own deliver nearly a third of the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions needed to keep warming below the 2C threshold for dangerous climate change, the bank said.

The World Bank president, Jim Yong Kim, said the findings put to rest claims that the world could not afford to act on climate change.

“These policies make economic sense,” Kim said in a conference call with reporters. “This report removes another false barrier, another false argument not to take action against climate change.”

Australia’s prime minister, Tony Abbott, said during a visit to Canada earlier this month that it was too costly to fight climate change. “What we are not going to do is clobber our economy and cost jobs with things like a job-killing carbon tax,” he said.

Kim did not comment directly on Abbott’s remarks but he said pointedly that the World Bank study provided solid data on the effects of pro-climate policies, in contrast to “opining” about their costs.

“This modelling shows that smart choices that will also improve local and global economies,” Kim said.

The findings are also a step forward from the work of economists such as Lord Stern who have focused on the costs of delaying action on climate change.

The World Bank report was the first off the blocks of a number of economic studies meant to further the case for taking action on climate change ahead of a critical meeting at the United Nations in September.

The UN secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, has invited world leaders to the UN to try to build momentum in the negotiations for a global climate change deal.

American financial leaders have also been making the case that it makes sense to act now on climate change.

In an article in the New York Times, Henry Paulson, secretary of treasury under George Bush, called for a carbon tax and said it would be folly for America to remain heavily invested in a carbon-intensive economy.

“We’re staring down a climate bubble that poses enormous risks to both our environment and economy. The warning signs are clear and growing more urgent as the risks go unchecked,” he wrote. “I feel as if I’m watching as we fly in slow motion on a collision course toward a giant mountain. We can see the crash coming, and yet we’re sitting on our hands rather than altering course.”

Paulson is due to come out with his own report on climate risks later on Tuesday.

In the World Bank report, economists looked at the effects of specific policies in six regions – Brazil, China, the European Union, India, Mexico, and the United States – that are both leaders in the world economy and global emissions.

None of the policies involved putting an economy-wide price on carbon emissions. Instead, the bank used computer modelling to gauge the effects of specific measures – such as installing dedicated bus lanes in India or clean cook stoves in China, or introducing more efficient air conditioning and other building systems in Mexico.

The annual benefits of those policies included GDP growth of between $1.8tn and $2.6tn – which was an estimated 1.5% higher than under a business as usual scenario, the bank said.

It said the pro-climate pro-climate policies would have other knock-on benefits including avoiding 94,000 deaths a year due to air pollution.

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jun/24/tackling-climate-change-would-grow-global-economy-world-bank-says

TakePart – Recycle Right Video!

It seems easy but apparently people are still stymied by the rules of recycling. Some buildings do, some don’t. Some places take wire hangers, some don’t. Standardization of the signs should take some of the “pause, consider, realize you’re late and give up” that happens most often in public places. Watch the video for a lighthearted PSA on how to get it right!

This Awesome Campaign Takes the Confusion out of Recycling

Recycle Across America has partnered with Participant Media, our parent company, to launch the Recycle Right project.

VIDEO: http://www.takepart.com/video/2014/06/02/awesome-campaign-takes-confusion-out-recycling?cmpid=longtailshare

June 02, 2014 By

recycle right

Nobody likes to think about trash. We can go all day without giving a single thought to the 4.3-pound detritus—that’s the average amount of waste a person generates in 24 hours—we toss into bins and receptacles that magically empty out the next morning or the next week. This has piled up into a problem we can’t ignore, so Mitch Hedlund is working to make recycling simpler and more intuitive.

“We want to get to the point where people know what to do when they walk up to bins without having to take the time to think about it,” she says. Hedlund heads Recycle Across America, a nonprofit working to standardize recycling labels across the nation. As seen in the video above, they’re as simple as they come: mixed recycling, compost, and landfill—all in large lettering, with corresponding diagrams.

Before RAA began the first standardized label initiative of magnitude in 2011, Hedlund had an epiphany at, of all places, an airport. “I remember one person walking by, and he’s throwing a dirty diaper in front of me and said, ‘It’s all going to the landfill anyway.’ That left an impression on my mind.”

Hedlund was then working on a project called Eco-Profile, which focused on how businesses could become more sustainable. When she found herself a keynote speaker at a recycling conference to talk about corporate sustainability, Hedlund decided to share some outsider observations with the group. “I had a mini me on my right shoulder asking, ‘Why would you tell them what’s wrong with their industry?’ But when will I have the chance to address this group again?”

She showed her audience hundreds of photos of recycling bins; none of them had the same label on them. “I said, ‘This is what recycling looks like to the general public today.’ ”

Soon after, Hedlund started working with industry leaders as well as people outside of the field to evaluate the designs she created and suggested at the recycling conference. She founded RAA in April 2011 to introduce the labels they found to be the most effective for the general public. Three years later, the nonprofit has nabbed partnerships with companies such as Hallmark, AOL, and Procter & Gamble. It has also distributed the labels to 2,000 K–12 schools in the U.S. Now RAA is working with Participant Media, TakePart’s parent company, to launch the Recycle Right campaign.

“We can’t just ask people to recycle more, because they’re not doing it correctly right now. If we continue to do what we’re doing and asked people to do it more, we’re just going to have stockpiles of bad recycling that nobody would use,” Hedlund explains. “It will still get thrown to the landfill.”

She adds, “There’s a big part of the population that’s trying to recycle properly, and they’re taking the time to figure it out when they’re at a public area bin. There’s another part that still says, ‘It’s all going to a landfill anyway.’ ”

With standardized labels, Hedlund hopes, we can all finally recycle right without thinking that much about it.

http://www.takepart.com/video/2014/06/02/awesome-campaign-takes-confusion-out-recycling?cmpid=organic-share-facebook

It’s the little things

Check it out! Featuring David Suzuki and some of the world’s best snowboarders, The Little Things Movieshares the stories of environmentally conscious athletes who are inspirational for their sustainable initiatives and lifestyles. As he says, you need a personal connection to nature to make it meaningful. We are 100% connected to everything in nature at every moment. It sustains us. It is up to us to protect it like we protect our own lives. Watch the teaser! http://vimeo.com/83739011

the little things